WHAT IS HYPERTENSION AND HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED?
Hypertension; It can be defined as our blood pressure above 140/90 mmhg. Hypertension is never diagnosed by making a single measurement in a person. If the blood pressure values are above 140/90 mmhg in the measurements made on at least 2 different days is called hypertension. While some of our patients have high values in the measurements made in our hospital, their blood pressure may be normal if the measurements are taken at home. We perform 24-hour blood pressure Holter monitoring in order to be able to make the correct diagnosis in such cases that we call "White Coat Hypertension" or measurements at the border of hypertension. After the device is attached to the patient, it takes automatic measurements every 15 minutes during the day and 30 minutes at night while continuing the patient normal daily life, and then gives day, night and 24-hour average values to us. % 95 of patients with hypertension belongs to a group called ' Essential Hypertension' which we do not know the reason of the disease. In a small part of 5%, hypertension may occur as a result of the use of certain diseases or substances. Some kidney diseases, endocrine diseases, use of alcohol, drugs, oral contraceptives and pain medication can also lead to hypertension. With the elimination of these reasons, the patient's blood pressure may return to normal. Therefore, secondary causes that may be on the ground should be investigated when hypertension is diagnosed.
HOW SHOULD BE THE CORRECT BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT?
There are certain rules for measuring blood pressure. First of all, measurements should be made on both arms of the people to be measured for the first time. Generally, blood pressure is slightly high in the right arm. However, this height difference does not exceed 10 mmhg (maximum 15 mmhg). If the difference in blood pressure in the two arms is higher, an underlying arteriosclerosis disease that may cause narrowing of the underlying arm vein or aortic vessel should be investigated. Blood pressure should always be measured on the high arm. Before measuring blood pressure, the patient should urinate, sitting and at least 5 minutes. should be rested. Substances that affect blood pressure and heart rate, such as cigarettes and coffee, should not be drunk until at least 30 minutes before the measurement. Measurements should be made when patient is hungry and the legs should not be crossed and talked while taking measurements. Clothes should not be tight on the arm where blood pressure will be measured, and if necessary, measurements should be made from the bare arm. The dimensions of the sphygmomanometer cuff should be suitable for the patient in order to obtain accurate results. The sleeve pouch of the standard sphygmomanometer is 12 cm wide and 35 cm long. In obese patients and people with muscular arms, the pouch width should be 20 cm and the length should be around 40 cm. If digital measurement devices are to be used, those that measure from the arm should be preferred.
WHAT ARE THE MAIN SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTENSION?
If there are complaints such as the above symptoms, should be consulted to the doctor.
WHAT ARE THE HYPERTENSION RISK FACTORS?
Hypertension may cause symptoms such as headache, nose bleeding, ringing in the ears, weakness, fatigue, frequent or less urination, and swelling in the legs. If we summarize the main risk factors for hypertension; History of hypertension in the family, obesity, smoking, the high salt amount in the diet, stress, race (Afro-American, Slavic and Turkish people have high hypertension rate), gender (hypertension is higher in women in our country), age, diabetes and hyperlipidemia can be listed. People with these risk factors should be more careful about hypertension. Although the prevalence of hypertension increases with age and hypertension was known as an old age disease in the past, unfortunately, hypertension has started to be seen is much earlier age as a result of irregular nutrition, lack of physical activity, obesity, heavy smoking and alcohol use, especially in young people.
HOW IS HYPERTENSION TREATED?
When diagnosed with hypertension, the first thing to do is lifestyle changes. If the patients are over the ideal weight, it is recommended to return to their normal weight with an adequate and balanced diet program. Salt consumption is restricted and fruit and vegetable consumption is increased. The use of lemon, garlic, thyme and parsley in meals can be increased. Foods high in saturated fat, such as margarine, butter and lard, are excluded from the diet. It is recommended that patients use olive oil instead of oil, consume carbohydrate-rich foods, dough foods, reduce sweets, and consume fish to increase omega 3 intake. Alcohol and smoking should definitely be stopped and a stress-free life should be lived. Hypertension can be treated without medication by adapting to changes in lifestyle. However, drug therapy is started for patients whose blood pressure values are still high despite all these measures. Hypertension is a disease that the doctor and the patient can treat by acting together.
IF HYPERTENSION IS NOT TREATED, WHICH CAUSE HEALTH PROBLEMS?
Hypertension is one of the most important causes of atherosclerosis known as arteriosclerosis. If hypertension is not treated, it can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke that may develop due to clot or cerebral hemorrhage, kidney diseases, aortic vascular dilation and ruptures, blockages in leg vessels, visual disorders, Alzheimer's disease and sexual disorders.